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tif_dirread.c

/* $Id: tif_dirread.c,v 1.82 2006/03/16 12:24:53 dron Exp $ */

/*
 * Copyright (c) 1988-1997 Sam Leffler
 * Copyright (c) 1991-1997 Silicon Graphics, Inc.
 *
 * Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and sell this software and 
 * its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted without fee, provided
 * that (i) the above copyright notices and this permission notice appear in
 * all copies of the software and related documentation, and (ii) the names of
 * Sam Leffler and Silicon Graphics may not be used in any advertising or
 * publicity relating to the software without the specific, prior written
 * permission of Sam Leffler and Silicon Graphics.
 * 
 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS-IS" AND WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, 
 * EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY 
 * WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  
 * 
 * IN NO EVENT SHALL SAM LEFFLER OR SILICON GRAPHICS BE LIABLE FOR
 * ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND,
 * OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS,
 * WHETHER OR NOT ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF DAMAGE, AND ON ANY THEORY OF 
 * LIABILITY, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE 
 * OF THIS SOFTWARE.
 */

/*
 * TIFF Library.
 *
 * Directory Read Support Routines.
 */
#include "tiffiop.h"

#define     IGNORE      0           /* tag placeholder used below */

#ifdef HAVE_IEEEFP
# define    TIFFCvtIEEEFloatToNative(tif, n, fp)
# define    TIFFCvtIEEEDoubleToNative(tif, n, dp)
#else
extern      void TIFFCvtIEEEFloatToNative(TIFF*, uint32, float*);
extern      void TIFFCvtIEEEDoubleToNative(TIFF*, uint32, double*);
#endif

static      int EstimateStripByteCounts(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*, uint16);
static      void MissingRequired(TIFF*, const char*);
static      int CheckDirCount(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*, uint32);
static      tsize_t TIFFFetchData(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*, char*);
static      tsize_t TIFFFetchString(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*, char*);
static      float TIFFFetchRational(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*);
static      int TIFFFetchNormalTag(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*);
static      int TIFFFetchPerSampleShorts(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*, uint16*);
static      int TIFFFetchPerSampleLongs(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*, uint32*);
static      int TIFFFetchPerSampleAnys(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*, double*);
static      int TIFFFetchShortArray(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*, uint16*);
static      int TIFFFetchStripThing(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*, long, uint32**);
static      int TIFFFetchRefBlackWhite(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*);
static      float TIFFFetchFloat(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*);
static      int TIFFFetchFloatArray(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*, float*);
static      int TIFFFetchDoubleArray(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*, double*);
static      int TIFFFetchAnyArray(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*, double*);
static      int TIFFFetchShortPair(TIFF*, TIFFDirEntry*);
static      void ChopUpSingleUncompressedStrip(TIFF*);

/*
 * Read the next TIFF directory from a file
 * and convert it to the internal format.
 * We read directories sequentially.
 */
int
TIFFReadDirectory(TIFF* tif)
{
      static const char module[] = "TIFFReadDirectory";

      int n;
      TIFFDirectory* td;
      TIFFDirEntry *dp, *dir = NULL;
      uint16 iv;
      uint32 v;
      const TIFFFieldInfo* fip;
      size_t fix;
      uint16 dircount;
      toff_t nextdiroff;
      int diroutoforderwarning = 0;
      toff_t* new_dirlist;

      tif->tif_diroff = tif->tif_nextdiroff;
      if (tif->tif_diroff == 0)           /* no more directories */
            return (0);

      /*
       * XXX: Trick to prevent IFD looping. The one can create TIFF file
       * with looped directory pointers. We will maintain a list of already
       * seen directories and check every IFD offset against this list.
       */
      for (n = 0; n < tif->tif_dirnumber; n++) {
            if (tif->tif_dirlist[n] == tif->tif_diroff)
                  return (0);
      }
      tif->tif_dirnumber++;
      new_dirlist = (toff_t *)_TIFFrealloc(tif->tif_dirlist,
                              tif->tif_dirnumber * sizeof(toff_t));
      if (!new_dirlist) {
            TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                    "%s: Failed to allocate space for IFD list",
                    tif->tif_name);
            return (0);
      }
      tif->tif_dirlist = new_dirlist;
      tif->tif_dirlist[tif->tif_dirnumber - 1] = tif->tif_diroff;

      /*
       * Cleanup any previous compression state.
       */
      (*tif->tif_cleanup)(tif);
      tif->tif_curdir++;
      nextdiroff = 0;
      if (!isMapped(tif)) {
            if (!SeekOK(tif, tif->tif_diroff)) {
                  TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                      "%s: Seek error accessing TIFF directory",
                            tif->tif_name);
                  return (0);
            }
            if (!ReadOK(tif, &dircount, sizeof (uint16))) {
                  TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                      "%s: Can not read TIFF directory count",
                            tif->tif_name);
                  return (0);
            }
            if (tif->tif_flags & TIFF_SWAB)
                  TIFFSwabShort(&dircount);
            dir = (TIFFDirEntry *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif, dircount,
                                           sizeof (TIFFDirEntry),
                                    "to read TIFF directory");
            if (dir == NULL)
                  return (0);
            if (!ReadOK(tif, dir, dircount*sizeof (TIFFDirEntry))) {
                  TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                                  "%.100s: Can not read TIFF directory",
                                  tif->tif_name);
                  goto bad;
            }
            /*
             * Read offset to next directory for sequential scans.
             */
            (void) ReadOK(tif, &nextdiroff, sizeof (uint32));
      } else {
            toff_t off = tif->tif_diroff;

            if (off + sizeof (uint16) > tif->tif_size) {
                  TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                      "%s: Can not read TIFF directory count",
                            tif->tif_name);
                  return (0);
            } else
                  _TIFFmemcpy(&dircount, tif->tif_base + off, sizeof (uint16));
            off += sizeof (uint16);
            if (tif->tif_flags & TIFF_SWAB)
                  TIFFSwabShort(&dircount);
            dir = (TIFFDirEntry *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif, dircount,
                                           sizeof (TIFFDirEntry),
                                    "to read TIFF directory");
            if (dir == NULL)
                  return (0);
            if (off + dircount*sizeof (TIFFDirEntry) > tif->tif_size) {
                  TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                                  "%s: Can not read TIFF directory",
                                  tif->tif_name);
                  goto bad;
            } else {
                  _TIFFmemcpy(dir, tif->tif_base + off,
                            dircount*sizeof (TIFFDirEntry));
            }
            off += dircount* sizeof (TIFFDirEntry);
            if (off + sizeof (uint32) <= tif->tif_size)
                  _TIFFmemcpy(&nextdiroff, tif->tif_base+off, sizeof (uint32));
      }
      if (tif->tif_flags & TIFF_SWAB)
            TIFFSwabLong(&nextdiroff);
      tif->tif_nextdiroff = nextdiroff;

      tif->tif_flags &= ~TIFF_BEENWRITING;      /* reset before new dir */
      /*
       * Setup default value and then make a pass over
       * the fields to check type and tag information,
       * and to extract info required to size data
       * structures.  A second pass is made afterwards
       * to read in everthing not taken in the first pass.
       */
      td = &tif->tif_dir;
      /* free any old stuff and reinit */
      TIFFFreeDirectory(tif);
      TIFFDefaultDirectory(tif);
      /*
       * Electronic Arts writes gray-scale TIFF files
       * without a PlanarConfiguration directory entry.
       * Thus we setup a default value here, even though
       * the TIFF spec says there is no default value.
       */
      TIFFSetField(tif, TIFFTAG_PLANARCONFIG, PLANARCONFIG_CONTIG);

      /*
       * Sigh, we must make a separate pass through the
       * directory for the following reason:
       *
       * We must process the Compression tag in the first pass
       * in order to merge in codec-private tag definitions (otherwise
       * we may get complaints about unknown tags).  However, the
       * Compression tag may be dependent on the SamplesPerPixel
       * tag value because older TIFF specs permited Compression
       * to be written as a SamplesPerPixel-count tag entry.
       * Thus if we don't first figure out the correct SamplesPerPixel
       * tag value then we may end up ignoring the Compression tag
       * value because it has an incorrect count value (if the
       * true value of SamplesPerPixel is not 1).
       *
       * It sure would have been nice if Aldus had really thought
       * this stuff through carefully.
       */ 
      for (dp = dir, n = dircount; n > 0; n--, dp++) {
            if (tif->tif_flags & TIFF_SWAB) {
                  TIFFSwabArrayOfShort(&dp->tdir_tag, 2);
                  TIFFSwabArrayOfLong(&dp->tdir_count, 2);
            }
            if (dp->tdir_tag == TIFFTAG_SAMPLESPERPIXEL) {
                  if (!TIFFFetchNormalTag(tif, dp))
                        goto bad;
                  dp->tdir_tag = IGNORE;
            }
      }
      /*
       * First real pass over the directory.
       */
      fix = 0;
      for (dp = dir, n = dircount; n > 0; n--, dp++) {

            if (fix >= tif->tif_nfields || dp->tdir_tag == IGNORE)
                  continue;
               
            /*
             * Silicon Beach (at least) writes unordered
             * directory tags (violating the spec).  Handle
             * it here, but be obnoxious (maybe they'll fix it?).
             */
            if (dp->tdir_tag < tif->tif_fieldinfo[fix]->field_tag) {
                  if (!diroutoforderwarning) {
                        TIFFWarningExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
      "%s: invalid TIFF directory; tags are not sorted in ascending order",
                                     tif->tif_name);
                        diroutoforderwarning = 1;
                  }
                  fix = 0;                /* O(n^2) */
            }
            while (fix < tif->tif_nfields &&
                   tif->tif_fieldinfo[fix]->field_tag < dp->tdir_tag)
                  fix++;
            if (fix >= tif->tif_nfields ||
                tif->tif_fieldinfo[fix]->field_tag != dp->tdir_tag) {

                              TIFFWarningExt(tif->tif_clientdata,
                                           module,
                        "%s: unknown field with tag %d (0x%x) encountered",
                                           tif->tif_name,
                                           dp->tdir_tag,
                                           dp->tdir_tag,
                                           dp->tdir_type);

                    TIFFMergeFieldInfo(tif,
                                       _TIFFCreateAnonFieldInfo(tif,
                                    dp->tdir_tag,
                                    (TIFFDataType) dp->tdir_type),
                               1 );
                    fix = 0;
                    while (fix < tif->tif_nfields &&
                           tif->tif_fieldinfo[fix]->field_tag < dp->tdir_tag)
                  fix++;
            }
            /*
             * Null out old tags that we ignore.
             */
            if (tif->tif_fieldinfo[fix]->field_bit == FIELD_IGNORE) {
      ignore:
                  dp->tdir_tag = IGNORE;
                  continue;
            }
            /*
             * Check data type.
             */
            fip = tif->tif_fieldinfo[fix];
            while (dp->tdir_type != (unsigned short) fip->field_type
                       && fix < tif->tif_nfields) {
                  if (fip->field_type == TIFF_ANY)    /* wildcard */
                        break;
                        fip = tif->tif_fieldinfo[++fix];
                  if (fix >= tif->tif_nfields ||
                      fip->field_tag != dp->tdir_tag) {
                        TIFFWarningExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                  "%s: wrong data type %d for \"%s\"; tag ignored",
                                  tif->tif_name, dp->tdir_type,
                                  tif->tif_fieldinfo[fix-1]->field_name);
                        goto ignore;
                  }
            }
            /*
             * Check count if known in advance.
             */
            if (fip->field_readcount != TIFF_VARIABLE
                && fip->field_readcount != TIFF_VARIABLE2) {
                  uint32 expected = (fip->field_readcount == TIFF_SPP) ?
                      (uint32) td->td_samplesperpixel :
                      (uint32) fip->field_readcount;
                  if (!CheckDirCount(tif, dp, expected))
                        goto ignore;
            }

            switch (dp->tdir_tag) {
            case TIFFTAG_COMPRESSION:
                  /*
                   * The 5.0 spec says the Compression tag has
                   * one value, while earlier specs say it has
                   * one value per sample.  Because of this, we
                   * accept the tag if one value is supplied.
                   */
                  if (dp->tdir_count == 1) {
                        v = TIFFExtractData(tif,
                            dp->tdir_type, dp->tdir_offset);
                        if (!TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, (uint16)v))
                              goto bad;
                        break;
                  /* XXX: workaround for broken TIFFs */
                  } else if (dp->tdir_type == TIFF_LONG) {
                        if (!TIFFFetchPerSampleLongs(tif, dp, &v) ||
                            !TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, (uint16)v))
                              goto bad;
                  } else {
                        if (!TIFFFetchPerSampleShorts(tif, dp, &iv)
                            || !TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, iv))
                              goto bad;
                  }
                  dp->tdir_tag = IGNORE;
                  break;
            case TIFFTAG_STRIPOFFSETS:
            case TIFFTAG_STRIPBYTECOUNTS:
            case TIFFTAG_TILEOFFSETS:
            case TIFFTAG_TILEBYTECOUNTS:
                  TIFFSetFieldBit(tif, fip->field_bit);
                  break;
            case TIFFTAG_IMAGEWIDTH:
            case TIFFTAG_IMAGELENGTH:
            case TIFFTAG_IMAGEDEPTH:
            case TIFFTAG_TILELENGTH:
            case TIFFTAG_TILEWIDTH:
            case TIFFTAG_TILEDEPTH:
            case TIFFTAG_PLANARCONFIG:
            case TIFFTAG_ROWSPERSTRIP:
            case TIFFTAG_EXTRASAMPLES:
                  if (!TIFFFetchNormalTag(tif, dp))
                        goto bad;
                  dp->tdir_tag = IGNORE;
                  break;
            }
      }

      /*
       * Allocate directory structure and setup defaults.
       */
      if (!TIFFFieldSet(tif, FIELD_IMAGEDIMENSIONS)) {
            MissingRequired(tif, "ImageLength");
            goto bad;
      }
      /* 
       * Setup appropriate structures (by strip or by tile)
       */
      if (!TIFFFieldSet(tif, FIELD_TILEDIMENSIONS)) {
            td->td_nstrips = TIFFNumberOfStrips(tif);
            td->td_tilewidth = td->td_imagewidth;
            td->td_tilelength = td->td_rowsperstrip;
            td->td_tiledepth = td->td_imagedepth;
            tif->tif_flags &= ~TIFF_ISTILED;
      } else {
            td->td_nstrips = TIFFNumberOfTiles(tif);
            tif->tif_flags |= TIFF_ISTILED;
      }
      if (!td->td_nstrips) {
            TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                       "%s: cannot handle zero number of %s",
                       tif->tif_name, isTiled(tif) ? "tiles" : "strips");
            goto bad;
      }
      td->td_stripsperimage = td->td_nstrips;
      if (td->td_planarconfig == PLANARCONFIG_SEPARATE)
            td->td_stripsperimage /= td->td_samplesperpixel;
      if (!TIFFFieldSet(tif, FIELD_STRIPOFFSETS)) {
            MissingRequired(tif,
                        isTiled(tif) ? "TileOffsets" : "StripOffsets");
            goto bad;
      }

      /*
       * Second pass: extract other information.
       */
      for (dp = dir, n = dircount; n > 0; n--, dp++) {
            if (dp->tdir_tag == IGNORE)
                  continue;
            switch (dp->tdir_tag) {
            case TIFFTAG_MINSAMPLEVALUE:
            case TIFFTAG_MAXSAMPLEVALUE:
            case TIFFTAG_BITSPERSAMPLE:
            case TIFFTAG_DATATYPE:
            case TIFFTAG_SAMPLEFORMAT:
                  /*
                   * The 5.0 spec says the Compression tag has
                   * one value, while earlier specs say it has
                   * one value per sample.  Because of this, we
                   * accept the tag if one value is supplied.
                   *
                         * The MinSampleValue, MaxSampleValue, BitsPerSample
                         * DataType and SampleFormat tags are supposed to be
                         * written as one value/sample, but some vendors
                         * incorrectly write one value only -- so we accept
                         * that as well (yech). Other vendors write correct
                   * value for NumberOfSamples, but incorrect one for
                   * BitsPerSample and friends, and we will read this
                   * too.
                   */
                  if (dp->tdir_count == 1) {
                        v = TIFFExtractData(tif,
                            dp->tdir_type, dp->tdir_offset);
                        if (!TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, (uint16)v))
                              goto bad;
                  /* XXX: workaround for broken TIFFs */
                  } else if (dp->tdir_tag == TIFFTAG_BITSPERSAMPLE
                           && dp->tdir_type == TIFF_LONG) {
                        if (!TIFFFetchPerSampleLongs(tif, dp, &v) ||
                            !TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, (uint16)v))
                              goto bad;
                  } else {
                        if (!TIFFFetchPerSampleShorts(tif, dp, &iv) ||
                            !TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, iv))
                              goto bad;
                  }
                  break;
            case TIFFTAG_SMINSAMPLEVALUE:
            case TIFFTAG_SMAXSAMPLEVALUE:
                  {
                        double dv = 0.0;
                        if (!TIFFFetchPerSampleAnys(tif, dp, &dv) ||
                            !TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, dv))
                              goto bad;
                  }
                  break;
            case TIFFTAG_STRIPOFFSETS:
            case TIFFTAG_TILEOFFSETS:
                  if (!TIFFFetchStripThing(tif, dp,
                      td->td_nstrips, &td->td_stripoffset))
                        goto bad;
                  break;
            case TIFFTAG_STRIPBYTECOUNTS:
            case TIFFTAG_TILEBYTECOUNTS:
                  if (!TIFFFetchStripThing(tif, dp,
                      td->td_nstrips, &td->td_stripbytecount))
                        goto bad;
                  break;
            case TIFFTAG_COLORMAP:
            case TIFFTAG_TRANSFERFUNCTION:
                  {
                        char* cp;
                        /*
                         * TransferFunction can have either 1x or 3x
                         * data values; Colormap can have only 3x
                         * items.
                         */
                        v = 1L<<td->td_bitspersample;
                        if (dp->tdir_tag == TIFFTAG_COLORMAP ||
                            dp->tdir_count != v) {
                              if (!CheckDirCount(tif, dp, 3 * v))
                                    break;
                        }
                        v *= sizeof(uint16);
                        cp = (char *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif,
                                                dp->tdir_count,
                                                sizeof (uint16),
                              "to read \"TransferFunction\" tag");
                        if (cp != NULL) {
                              if (TIFFFetchData(tif, dp, cp)) {
                                    /*
                                     * This deals with there being
                                     * only one array to apply to
                                     * all samples.
                                     */
                                    uint32 c = 1L << td->td_bitspersample;
                                    if (dp->tdir_count == c)
                                          v = 0L;
                                    TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag,
                                        cp, cp+v, cp+2*v);
                              }
                              _TIFFfree(cp);
                        }
                        break;
                  }
            case TIFFTAG_PAGENUMBER:
            case TIFFTAG_HALFTONEHINTS:
            case TIFFTAG_YCBCRSUBSAMPLING:
            case TIFFTAG_DOTRANGE:
                  (void) TIFFFetchShortPair(tif, dp);
                  break;
            case TIFFTAG_REFERENCEBLACKWHITE:
                  (void) TIFFFetchRefBlackWhite(tif, dp);
                  break;
/* BEGIN REV 4.0 COMPATIBILITY */
            case TIFFTAG_OSUBFILETYPE:
                  v = 0L;
                  switch (TIFFExtractData(tif, dp->tdir_type,
                      dp->tdir_offset)) {
                  case OFILETYPE_REDUCEDIMAGE:
                        v = FILETYPE_REDUCEDIMAGE;
                        break;
                  case OFILETYPE_PAGE:
                        v = FILETYPE_PAGE;
                        break;
                  }
                  if (v)
                        TIFFSetField(tif, TIFFTAG_SUBFILETYPE, v);
                  break;
/* END REV 4.0 COMPATIBILITY */
            default:
                  (void) TIFFFetchNormalTag(tif, dp);
                  break;
            }
      }
      /*
       * Verify Palette image has a Colormap.
       */
      if (td->td_photometric == PHOTOMETRIC_PALETTE &&
          !TIFFFieldSet(tif, FIELD_COLORMAP)) {
            MissingRequired(tif, "Colormap");
            goto bad;
      }
      /*
       * Attempt to deal with a missing StripByteCounts tag.
       */
      if (!TIFFFieldSet(tif, FIELD_STRIPBYTECOUNTS)) {
            /*
             * Some manufacturers violate the spec by not giving
             * the size of the strips.  In this case, assume there
             * is one uncompressed strip of data.
             */
            if ((td->td_planarconfig == PLANARCONFIG_CONTIG &&
                td->td_nstrips > 1) ||
                (td->td_planarconfig == PLANARCONFIG_SEPARATE &&
                 td->td_nstrips != td->td_samplesperpixel)) {
                MissingRequired(tif, "StripByteCounts");
                goto bad;
            }
            TIFFWarningExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                  "%s: TIFF directory is missing required "
                  "\"%s\" field, calculating from imagelength",
                  tif->tif_name,
                    _TIFFFieldWithTag(tif,TIFFTAG_STRIPBYTECOUNTS)->field_name);
            if (EstimateStripByteCounts(tif, dir, dircount) < 0)
                goto bad;
/* 
 * Assume we have wrong StripByteCount value (in case of single strip) in
 * following cases:
 *   - it is equal to zero along with StripOffset;
 *   - it is larger than file itself (in case of uncompressed image);
 *   - it is smaller than the size of the bytes per row multiplied on the
 *     number of rows.  The last case should not be checked in the case of
 *     writing new image, because we may do not know the exact strip size
 *     until the whole image will be written and directory dumped out.
 */
#define     BYTECOUNTLOOKSBAD \
    ( (td->td_stripbytecount[0] == 0 && td->td_stripoffset[0] != 0) || \
      (td->td_compression == COMPRESSION_NONE && \
       td->td_stripbytecount[0] > TIFFGetFileSize(tif) - td->td_stripoffset[0]) || \
      (tif->tif_mode == O_RDONLY && \
       td->td_compression == COMPRESSION_NONE && \
       td->td_stripbytecount[0] < TIFFScanlineSize(tif) * td->td_imagelength) )

      } else if (td->td_nstrips == 1 
                   && td->td_stripoffset[0] != 0 
                   && BYTECOUNTLOOKSBAD) {
            /*
             * XXX: Plexus (and others) sometimes give a value of zero for
             * a tag when they don't know what the correct value is!  Try
             * and handle the simple case of estimating the size of a one
             * strip image.
             */
            TIFFWarningExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
      "%s: Bogus \"%s\" field, ignoring and calculating from imagelength",
                            tif->tif_name,
                        _TIFFFieldWithTag(tif,TIFFTAG_STRIPBYTECOUNTS)->field_name);
            if(EstimateStripByteCounts(tif, dir, dircount) < 0)
                goto bad;
      } else if (td->td_planarconfig == PLANARCONFIG_CONTIG
               && td->td_nstrips > 2
               && td->td_compression == COMPRESSION_NONE
               && td->td_stripbytecount[0] != td->td_stripbytecount[1]) {
            /*
             * XXX: Some vendors fill StripByteCount array with absolutely
             * wrong values (it can be equal to StripOffset array, for
             * example). Catch this case here.
             */
            TIFFWarningExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
      "%s: Wrong \"%s\" field, ignoring and calculating from imagelength",
                            tif->tif_name,
                        _TIFFFieldWithTag(tif,TIFFTAG_STRIPBYTECOUNTS)->field_name);
            if (EstimateStripByteCounts(tif, dir, dircount) < 0)
                goto bad;
      }
      if (dir) {
            _TIFFfree((char *)dir);
            dir = NULL;
      }
      if (!TIFFFieldSet(tif, FIELD_MAXSAMPLEVALUE))
            td->td_maxsamplevalue = (uint16)((1L<<td->td_bitspersample)-1);
      /*
       * Setup default compression scheme.
       */

      /*
       * XXX: We can optimize checking for the strip bounds using the sorted
       * bytecounts array. See also comments for TIFFAppendToStrip()
       * function in tif_write.c.
       */
      if (td->td_nstrips > 1) {
            tstrip_t strip;

            td->td_stripbytecountsorted = 1;
            for (strip = 1; strip < td->td_nstrips; strip++) {
                  if (td->td_stripoffset[strip - 1] >
                      td->td_stripoffset[strip]) {
                        td->td_stripbytecountsorted = 0;
                        break;
                  }
            }
      }

      if (!TIFFFieldSet(tif, FIELD_COMPRESSION))
            TIFFSetField(tif, TIFFTAG_COMPRESSION, COMPRESSION_NONE);
        /*
         * Some manufacturers make life difficult by writing
       * large amounts of uncompressed data as a single strip.
       * This is contrary to the recommendations of the spec.
         * The following makes an attempt at breaking such images
       * into strips closer to the recommended 8k bytes.  A
       * side effect, however, is that the RowsPerStrip tag
       * value may be changed.
         */
      if (td->td_nstrips == 1 && td->td_compression == COMPRESSION_NONE &&
          (tif->tif_flags & (TIFF_STRIPCHOP|TIFF_ISTILED)) == TIFF_STRIPCHOP)
            ChopUpSingleUncompressedStrip(tif);

      /*
       * Reinitialize i/o since we are starting on a new directory.
       */
      tif->tif_row = (uint32) -1;
      tif->tif_curstrip = (tstrip_t) -1;
      tif->tif_col = (uint32) -1;
      tif->tif_curtile = (ttile_t) -1;
      tif->tif_tilesize = (tsize_t) -1;

      tif->tif_scanlinesize = TIFFScanlineSize(tif);
      if (!tif->tif_scanlinesize) {
            TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module, "%s: cannot handle zero scanline size",
                    tif->tif_name);
            return (0);
      }

      if (isTiled(tif)) {
            tif->tif_tilesize = TIFFTileSize(tif);
            if (!tif->tif_tilesize) {
                  TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module, "%s: cannot handle zero tile size",
                          tif->tif_name);
                  return (0);
            }
      } else {
            if (!TIFFStripSize(tif)) {
                  TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module, "%s: cannot handle zero strip size",
                          tif->tif_name);
                  return (0);
            }
      }
      return (1);
bad:
      if (dir)
            _TIFFfree(dir);
      return (0);
}

/* 
 * Read custom directory from the arbitarry offset.
 * The code is very similar to TIFFReadDirectory().
 */
int
TIFFReadCustomDirectory(TIFF* tif, toff_t diroff,
                  const TIFFFieldInfo info[], size_t n)
{
      static const char module[] = "TIFFReadCustomDirectory";

      TIFFDirectory* td = &tif->tif_dir;
      TIFFDirEntry *dp, *dir = NULL;
      const TIFFFieldInfo* fip;
      size_t fix;
      uint16 i, dircount;

      _TIFFSetupFieldInfo(tif, info, n);

      tif->tif_diroff = diroff;

      if (!isMapped(tif)) {
            if (!SeekOK(tif, diroff)) {
                  TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                      "%s: Seek error accessing TIFF directory",
                            tif->tif_name);
                  return (0);
            }
            if (!ReadOK(tif, &dircount, sizeof (uint16))) {
                  TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                      "%s: Can not read TIFF directory count",
                            tif->tif_name);
                  return (0);
            }
            if (tif->tif_flags & TIFF_SWAB)
                  TIFFSwabShort(&dircount);
            dir = (TIFFDirEntry *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif, dircount,
                                           sizeof (TIFFDirEntry),
                              "to read TIFF custom directory");
            if (dir == NULL)
                  return (0);
            if (!ReadOK(tif, dir, dircount * sizeof (TIFFDirEntry))) {
                  TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                                  "%.100s: Can not read TIFF directory",
                                  tif->tif_name);
                  goto bad;
            }
      } else {
            toff_t off = diroff;

            if (off + sizeof (uint16) > tif->tif_size) {
                  TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                      "%s: Can not read TIFF directory count",
                            tif->tif_name);
                  return (0);
            } else
                  _TIFFmemcpy(&dircount, tif->tif_base + off, sizeof (uint16));
            off += sizeof (uint16);
            if (tif->tif_flags & TIFF_SWAB)
                  TIFFSwabShort(&dircount);
            dir = (TIFFDirEntry *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif, dircount,
                                           sizeof (TIFFDirEntry),
                              "to read TIFF custom directory");
            if (dir == NULL)
                  return (0);
            if (off + dircount * sizeof (TIFFDirEntry) > tif->tif_size) {
                  TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                                  "%s: Can not read TIFF directory",
                                  tif->tif_name);
                  goto bad;
            } else {
                  _TIFFmemcpy(dir, tif->tif_base + off,
                            dircount * sizeof (TIFFDirEntry));
            }
      }

      TIFFFreeDirectory(tif);

      fix = 0;
      for (dp = dir, i = dircount; i > 0; i--, dp++) {
            if (tif->tif_flags & TIFF_SWAB) {
                  TIFFSwabArrayOfShort(&dp->tdir_tag, 2);
                  TIFFSwabArrayOfLong(&dp->tdir_count, 2);
            }

            if (fix >= tif->tif_nfields || dp->tdir_tag == IGNORE)
                  continue;

            while (fix < tif->tif_nfields &&
                   tif->tif_fieldinfo[fix]->field_tag < dp->tdir_tag)
                  fix++;

            if (fix >= tif->tif_nfields ||
                tif->tif_fieldinfo[fix]->field_tag != dp->tdir_tag) {

                  TIFFWarningExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                        "%s: unknown field with tag %d (0x%x) encountered",
                            tif->tif_name, dp->tdir_tag, dp->tdir_tag,
                            dp->tdir_type);

                  TIFFMergeFieldInfo(tif,
                                 _TIFFCreateAnonFieldInfo(tif,
                                    dp->tdir_tag,
                                    (TIFFDataType)dp->tdir_type),
                                 1);

                  fix = 0;
                  while (fix < tif->tif_nfields &&
                         tif->tif_fieldinfo[fix]->field_tag < dp->tdir_tag)
                        fix++;
            }
            /*
             * Null out old tags that we ignore.
             */
            if (tif->tif_fieldinfo[fix]->field_bit == FIELD_IGNORE) {
      ignore:
                  dp->tdir_tag = IGNORE;
                  continue;
            }
            /*
             * Check data type.
             */
            fip = tif->tif_fieldinfo[fix];
            while (dp->tdir_type != (unsigned short) fip->field_type
                       && fix < tif->tif_nfields) {
                  if (fip->field_type == TIFF_ANY)    /* wildcard */
                        break;
                        fip = tif->tif_fieldinfo[++fix];
                  if (fix >= tif->tif_nfields ||
                      fip->field_tag != dp->tdir_tag) {
                        TIFFWarningExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                  "%s: wrong data type %d for \"%s\"; tag ignored",
                                  tif->tif_name, dp->tdir_type,
                                  tif->tif_fieldinfo[fix-1]->field_name);
                        goto ignore;
                  }
            }
            /*
             * Check count if known in advance.
             */
            if (fip->field_readcount != TIFF_VARIABLE
                && fip->field_readcount != TIFF_VARIABLE2) {
                  uint32 expected = (fip->field_readcount == TIFF_SPP) ?
                      (uint32) td->td_samplesperpixel :
                      (uint32) fip->field_readcount;
                  if (!CheckDirCount(tif, dp, expected))
                        goto ignore;
            }

            (void) TIFFFetchNormalTag(tif, dp);
      }
      
      if (dir)
            _TIFFfree(dir);
      return 1;

bad:
      if (dir)
            _TIFFfree(dir);
      return 0;
}

/*
 * EXIF is important special case of custom IFD, so we have a special
 * function to read it.
 */
int
TIFFReadEXIFDirectory(TIFF* tif, toff_t diroff)
{
      size_t exifFieldInfoCount;
      const TIFFFieldInfo *exifFieldInfo =
            _TIFFGetExifFieldInfo(&exifFieldInfoCount);
      return TIFFReadCustomDirectory(tif, diroff, exifFieldInfo,
                               exifFieldInfoCount);
}

static int
EstimateStripByteCounts(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, uint16 dircount)
{
      static const char module[] = "EstimateStripByteCounts";

      register TIFFDirEntry *dp;
      register TIFFDirectory *td = &tif->tif_dir;
      uint16 i;

      if (td->td_stripbytecount)
            _TIFFfree(td->td_stripbytecount);
      td->td_stripbytecount = (uint32*)
          _TIFFCheckMalloc(tif, td->td_nstrips, sizeof (uint32),
            "for \"StripByteCounts\" array");
      if (td->td_compression != COMPRESSION_NONE) {
            uint32 space = (uint32)(sizeof (TIFFHeader)
                + sizeof (uint16)
                + (dircount * sizeof (TIFFDirEntry))
                + sizeof (uint32));
            toff_t filesize = TIFFGetFileSize(tif);
            uint16 n;

            /* calculate amount of space used by indirect values */
            for (dp = dir, n = dircount; n > 0; n--, dp++)
            {
                  uint32 cc = TIFFDataWidth((TIFFDataType) dp->tdir_type);
                  if (cc == 0) {
                        TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
                  "%s: Cannot determine size of unknown tag type %d",
                                tif->tif_name, dp->tdir_type);
                        return -1;
                  }
                  cc = cc * dp->tdir_count;
                  if (cc > sizeof (uint32))
                        space += cc;
            }
            space = filesize - space;
            if (td->td_planarconfig == PLANARCONFIG_SEPARATE)
                  space /= td->td_samplesperpixel;
            for (i = 0; i < td->td_nstrips; i++)
                  td->td_stripbytecount[i] = space;
            /*
             * This gross hack handles the case were the offset to
             * the last strip is past the place where we think the strip
             * should begin.  Since a strip of data must be contiguous,
             * it's safe to assume that we've overestimated the amount
             * of data in the strip and trim this number back accordingly.
             */ 
            i--;
            if (((toff_t)(td->td_stripoffset[i]+td->td_stripbytecount[i]))
                                                               > filesize)
                  td->td_stripbytecount[i] =
                      filesize - td->td_stripoffset[i];
      } else {
            uint32 rowbytes = TIFFScanlineSize(tif);
            uint32 rowsperstrip = td->td_imagelength/td->td_stripsperimage;
            for (i = 0; i < td->td_nstrips; i++)
                  td->td_stripbytecount[i] = rowbytes*rowsperstrip;
      }
      TIFFSetFieldBit(tif, FIELD_STRIPBYTECOUNTS);
      if (!TIFFFieldSet(tif, FIELD_ROWSPERSTRIP))
            td->td_rowsperstrip = td->td_imagelength;
      return 1;
}

static void
MissingRequired(TIFF* tif, const char* tagname)
{
      static const char module[] = "MissingRequired";

      TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, module,
              "%s: TIFF directory is missing required \"%s\" field",
              tif->tif_name, tagname);
}

/*
 * Check the count field of a directory
 * entry against a known value.  The caller
 * is expected to skip/ignore the tag if
 * there is a mismatch.
 */
static int
CheckDirCount(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, uint32 count)
{
      if (count > dir->tdir_count) {
            TIFFWarningExt(tif->tif_clientdata, tif->tif_name,
      "incorrect count for field \"%s\" (%lu, expecting %lu); tag ignored",
                _TIFFFieldWithTag(tif, dir->tdir_tag)->field_name,
                dir->tdir_count, count);
            return (0);
      } else if (count < dir->tdir_count) {
            TIFFWarningExt(tif->tif_clientdata, tif->tif_name,
      "incorrect count for field \"%s\" (%lu, expecting %lu); tag trimmed",
                _TIFFFieldWithTag(tif, dir->tdir_tag)->field_name,
                dir->tdir_count, count);
            return (1);
      }
      return (1);
}

/*
 * Fetch a contiguous directory item.
 */
static tsize_t
TIFFFetchData(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, char* cp)
{
      int w = TIFFDataWidth((TIFFDataType) dir->tdir_type);
      tsize_t cc = dir->tdir_count * w;

      /* Check for overflow. */
      if (!dir->tdir_count || !w || cc / w != (tsize_t)dir->tdir_count)
            goto bad;

      if (!isMapped(tif)) {
            if (!SeekOK(tif, dir->tdir_offset))
                  goto bad;
            if (!ReadOK(tif, cp, cc))
                  goto bad;
      } else {
            /* Check for overflow. */
            if ((tsize_t)dir->tdir_offset + cc < (tsize_t)dir->tdir_offset
                || (tsize_t)dir->tdir_offset + cc < cc
                || (tsize_t)dir->tdir_offset + cc > (tsize_t)tif->tif_size)
                  goto bad;
            _TIFFmemcpy(cp, tif->tif_base + dir->tdir_offset, cc);
      }
      if (tif->tif_flags & TIFF_SWAB) {
            switch (dir->tdir_type) {
            case TIFF_SHORT:
            case TIFF_SSHORT:
                  TIFFSwabArrayOfShort((uint16*) cp, dir->tdir_count);
                  break;
            case TIFF_LONG:
            case TIFF_SLONG:
            case TIFF_FLOAT:
                  TIFFSwabArrayOfLong((uint32*) cp, dir->tdir_count);
                  break;
            case TIFF_RATIONAL:
            case TIFF_SRATIONAL:
                  TIFFSwabArrayOfLong((uint32*) cp, 2*dir->tdir_count);
                  break;
            case TIFF_DOUBLE:
                  TIFFSwabArrayOfDouble((double*) cp, dir->tdir_count);
                  break;
            }
      }
      return (cc);
bad:
      TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, tif->tif_name,
                 "Error fetching data for field \"%s\"",
                 _TIFFFieldWithTag(tif, dir->tdir_tag)->field_name);
      return (tsize_t) 0;
}

/*
 * Fetch an ASCII item from the file.
 */
static tsize_t
TIFFFetchString(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, char* cp)
{
      if (dir->tdir_count <= 4) {
            uint32 l = dir->tdir_offset;
            if (tif->tif_flags & TIFF_SWAB)
                  TIFFSwabLong(&l);
            _TIFFmemcpy(cp, &l, dir->tdir_count);
            return (1);
      }
      return (TIFFFetchData(tif, dir, cp));
}

/*
 * Convert numerator+denominator to float.
 */
static int
cvtRational(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, uint32 num, uint32 denom, float* rv)
{
      if (denom == 0) {
            TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, tif->tif_name,
                "%s: Rational with zero denominator (num = %lu)",
                _TIFFFieldWithTag(tif, dir->tdir_tag)->field_name, num);
            return (0);
      } else {
            if (dir->tdir_type == TIFF_RATIONAL)
                  *rv = ((float)num / (float)denom);
            else
                  *rv = ((float)(int32)num / (float)(int32)denom);
            return (1);
      }
}

/*
 * Fetch a rational item from the file
 * at offset off and return the value
 * as a floating point number.
 */
static float
TIFFFetchRational(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir)
{
      uint32 l[2];
      float v;

      return (!TIFFFetchData(tif, dir, (char *)l) ||
          !cvtRational(tif, dir, l[0], l[1], &v) ? 1.0f : v);
}

/*
 * Fetch a single floating point value
 * from the offset field and return it
 * as a native float.
 */
static float
TIFFFetchFloat(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir)
{
      float v;
      int32 l = TIFFExtractData(tif, dir->tdir_type, dir->tdir_offset);
        _TIFFmemcpy(&v, &l, sizeof(float));
      TIFFCvtIEEEFloatToNative(tif, 1, &v);
      return (v);
}

/*
 * Fetch an array of BYTE or SBYTE values.
 */
static int
TIFFFetchByteArray(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, uint8* v)
{
    if (dir->tdir_count <= 4) {
        /*
         * Extract data from offset field.
         */
        if (tif->tif_header.tiff_magic == TIFF_BIGENDIAN) {
          if (dir->tdir_type == TIFF_SBYTE)
                switch (dir->tdir_count) {
                    case 4: v[3] = dir->tdir_offset & 0xff;
                    case 3: v[2] = (dir->tdir_offset >> 8) & 0xff;
                    case 2: v[1] = (dir->tdir_offset >> 16) & 0xff;
                case 1: v[0] = dir->tdir_offset >> 24;
                }
          else
                switch (dir->tdir_count) {
                    case 4: v[3] = dir->tdir_offset & 0xff;
                    case 3: v[2] = (dir->tdir_offset >> 8) & 0xff;
                    case 2: v[1] = (dir->tdir_offset >> 16) & 0xff;
                case 1: v[0] = dir->tdir_offset >> 24;
                }
      } else {
          if (dir->tdir_type == TIFF_SBYTE)
                switch (dir->tdir_count) {
                    case 4: v[3] = dir->tdir_offset >> 24;
                    case 3: v[2] = (dir->tdir_offset >> 16) & 0xff;
                    case 2: v[1] = (dir->tdir_offset >> 8) & 0xff;
                    case 1: v[0] = dir->tdir_offset & 0xff;
            }
          else
                switch (dir->tdir_count) {
                    case 4: v[3] = dir->tdir_offset >> 24;
                    case 3: v[2] = (dir->tdir_offset >> 16) & 0xff;
                    case 2: v[1] = (dir->tdir_offset >> 8) & 0xff;
                    case 1: v[0] = dir->tdir_offset & 0xff;
            }
      }
        return (1);
    } else
        return (TIFFFetchData(tif, dir, (char*) v) != 0);   /* XXX */
}

/*
 * Fetch an array of SHORT or SSHORT values.
 */
static int
TIFFFetchShortArray(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, uint16* v)
{
      if (dir->tdir_count <= 2) {
            if (tif->tif_header.tiff_magic == TIFF_BIGENDIAN) {
                  switch (dir->tdir_count) {
                  case 2: v[1] = (uint16) (dir->tdir_offset & 0xffff);
                  case 1: v[0] = (uint16) (dir->tdir_offset >> 16);
                  }
            } else {
                  switch (dir->tdir_count) {
                  case 2: v[1] = (uint16) (dir->tdir_offset >> 16);
                  case 1: v[0] = (uint16) (dir->tdir_offset & 0xffff);
                  }
            }
            return (1);
      } else
            return (TIFFFetchData(tif, dir, (char *)v) != 0);
}

/*
 * Fetch a pair of SHORT or BYTE values. Some tags may have either BYTE
 * or SHORT type and this function works with both ones.
 */
static int
TIFFFetchShortPair(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir)
{
      switch (dir->tdir_type) {
            case TIFF_BYTE:
            case TIFF_SBYTE:
                  {
                  uint8 v[4];
                  return TIFFFetchByteArray(tif, dir, v)
                        && TIFFSetField(tif, dir->tdir_tag, v[0], v[1]);
                  }
            case TIFF_SHORT:
            case TIFF_SSHORT:
                  {
                  uint16 v[2];
                  return TIFFFetchShortArray(tif, dir, v)
                        && TIFFSetField(tif, dir->tdir_tag, v[0], v[1]);
                  }
            default:
                  return 0;
      }
}

/*
 * Fetch an array of LONG or SLONG values.
 */
static int
TIFFFetchLongArray(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, uint32* v)
{
      if (dir->tdir_count == 1) {
            v[0] = dir->tdir_offset;
            return (1);
      } else
            return (TIFFFetchData(tif, dir, (char*) v) != 0);
}

/*
 * Fetch an array of RATIONAL or SRATIONAL values.
 */
static int
TIFFFetchRationalArray(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, float* v)
{
      int ok = 0;
      uint32* l;

      l = (uint32*)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif,
          dir->tdir_count, TIFFDataWidth((TIFFDataType) dir->tdir_type),
          "to fetch array of rationals");
      if (l) {
            if (TIFFFetchData(tif, dir, (char *)l)) {
                  uint32 i;
                  for (i = 0; i < dir->tdir_count; i++) {
                        ok = cvtRational(tif, dir,
                            l[2*i+0], l[2*i+1], &v[i]);
                        if (!ok)
                              break;
                  }
            }
            _TIFFfree((char *)l);
      }
      return (ok);
}

/*
 * Fetch an array of FLOAT values.
 */
static int
TIFFFetchFloatArray(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, float* v)
{

      if (dir->tdir_count == 1) {
            v[0] = *(float*) &dir->tdir_offset;
            TIFFCvtIEEEFloatToNative(tif, dir->tdir_count, v);
            return (1);
      } else      if (TIFFFetchData(tif, dir, (char*) v)) {
            TIFFCvtIEEEFloatToNative(tif, dir->tdir_count, v);
            return (1);
      } else
            return (0);
}

/*
 * Fetch an array of DOUBLE values.
 */
static int
TIFFFetchDoubleArray(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, double* v)
{
      if (TIFFFetchData(tif, dir, (char*) v)) {
            TIFFCvtIEEEDoubleToNative(tif, dir->tdir_count, v);
            return (1);
      } else
            return (0);
}

/*
 * Fetch an array of ANY values.  The actual values are
 * returned as doubles which should be able hold all the
 * types.  Yes, there really should be an tany_t to avoid
 * this potential non-portability ...  Note in particular
 * that we assume that the double return value vector is
 * large enough to read in any fundamental type.  We use
 * that vector as a buffer to read in the base type vector
 * and then convert it in place to double (from end
 * to front of course).
 */
static int
TIFFFetchAnyArray(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, double* v)
{
      int i;

      switch (dir->tdir_type) {
      case TIFF_BYTE:
      case TIFF_SBYTE:
            if (!TIFFFetchByteArray(tif, dir, (uint8*) v))
                  return (0);
            if (dir->tdir_type == TIFF_BYTE) {
                  uint8* vp = (uint8*) v;
                  for (i = dir->tdir_count-1; i >= 0; i--)
                        v[i] = vp[i];
            } else {
                  int8* vp = (int8*) v;
                  for (i = dir->tdir_count-1; i >= 0; i--)
                        v[i] = vp[i];
            }
            break;
      case TIFF_SHORT:
      case TIFF_SSHORT:
            if (!TIFFFetchShortArray(tif, dir, (uint16*) v))
                  return (0);
            if (dir->tdir_type == TIFF_SHORT) {
                  uint16* vp = (uint16*) v;
                  for (i = dir->tdir_count-1; i >= 0; i--)
                        v[i] = vp[i];
            } else {
                  int16* vp = (int16*) v;
                  for (i = dir->tdir_count-1; i >= 0; i--)
                        v[i] = vp[i];
            }
            break;
      case TIFF_LONG:
      case TIFF_SLONG:
            if (!TIFFFetchLongArray(tif, dir, (uint32*) v))
                  return (0);
            if (dir->tdir_type == TIFF_LONG) {
                  uint32* vp = (uint32*) v;
                  for (i = dir->tdir_count-1; i >= 0; i--)
                        v[i] = vp[i];
            } else {
                  int32* vp = (int32*) v;
                  for (i = dir->tdir_count-1; i >= 0; i--)
                        v[i] = vp[i];
            }
            break;
      case TIFF_RATIONAL:
      case TIFF_SRATIONAL:
            if (!TIFFFetchRationalArray(tif, dir, (float*) v))
                  return (0);
            { float* vp = (float*) v;
              for (i = dir->tdir_count-1; i >= 0; i--)
                  v[i] = vp[i];
            }
            break;
      case TIFF_FLOAT:
            if (!TIFFFetchFloatArray(tif, dir, (float*) v))
                  return (0);
            { float* vp = (float*) v;
              for (i = dir->tdir_count-1; i >= 0; i--)
                  v[i] = vp[i];
            }
            break;
      case TIFF_DOUBLE:
            return (TIFFFetchDoubleArray(tif, dir, (double*) v));
      default:
            /* TIFF_NOTYPE */
            /* TIFF_ASCII */
            /* TIFF_UNDEFINED */
            TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, tif->tif_name,
                       "cannot read TIFF_ANY type %d for field \"%s\"",
                       dir->tdir_type,
                       _TIFFFieldWithTag(tif, dir->tdir_tag)->field_name);
            return (0);
      }
      return (1);
}

/*
 * Fetch a tag that is not handled by special case code.
 */
static int
TIFFFetchNormalTag(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dp)
{
      static const char mesg[] = "to fetch tag value";
      int ok = 0;
      const TIFFFieldInfo* fip = _TIFFFieldWithTag(tif, dp->tdir_tag);

      if (dp->tdir_count > 1) {           /* array of values */
            char* cp = NULL;

            switch (dp->tdir_type) {
            case TIFF_BYTE:
            case TIFF_SBYTE:
                  cp = (char *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif,
                      dp->tdir_count, sizeof (uint8), mesg);
                  ok = cp && TIFFFetchByteArray(tif, dp, (uint8*) cp);
                  break;
            case TIFF_SHORT:
            case TIFF_SSHORT:
                  cp = (char *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif,
                      dp->tdir_count, sizeof (uint16), mesg);
                  ok = cp && TIFFFetchShortArray(tif, dp, (uint16*) cp);
                  break;
            case TIFF_LONG:
            case TIFF_SLONG:
                  cp = (char *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif,
                      dp->tdir_count, sizeof (uint32), mesg);
                  ok = cp && TIFFFetchLongArray(tif, dp, (uint32*) cp);
                  break;
            case TIFF_RATIONAL:
            case TIFF_SRATIONAL:
                  cp = (char *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif,
                      dp->tdir_count, sizeof (float), mesg);
                  ok = cp && TIFFFetchRationalArray(tif, dp, (float*) cp);
                  break;
            case TIFF_FLOAT:
                  cp = (char *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif,
                      dp->tdir_count, sizeof (float), mesg);
                  ok = cp && TIFFFetchFloatArray(tif, dp, (float*) cp);
                  break;
            case TIFF_DOUBLE:
                  cp = (char *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif,
                      dp->tdir_count, sizeof (double), mesg);
                  ok = cp && TIFFFetchDoubleArray(tif, dp, (double*) cp);
                  break;
            case TIFF_ASCII:
            case TIFF_UNDEFINED:          /* bit of a cheat... */
                  /*
                   * Some vendors write strings w/o the trailing
                   * NULL byte, so always append one just in case.
                   */
                  cp = (char *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif, dp->tdir_count + 1,
                                          1, mesg);
                  if( (ok = (cp && TIFFFetchString(tif, dp, cp))) != 0 )
                        cp[dp->tdir_count] = '\0';    /* XXX */
                  break;
            }
            if (ok) {
                  ok = (fip->field_passcount ?
                      TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, dp->tdir_count, cp)
                    : TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, cp));
            }
            if (cp != NULL)
                  _TIFFfree(cp);
      } else if (CheckDirCount(tif, dp, 1)) {   /* singleton value */
            switch (dp->tdir_type) {
            case TIFF_BYTE:
            case TIFF_SBYTE:
            case TIFF_SHORT:
            case TIFF_SSHORT:
                  /*
                   * If the tag is also acceptable as a LONG or SLONG
                   * then TIFFSetField will expect an uint32 parameter
                   * passed to it (through varargs).  Thus, for machines
                   * where sizeof (int) != sizeof (uint32) we must do
                   * a careful check here.  It's hard to say if this
                   * is worth optimizing.
                   *
                   * NB: We use TIFFFieldWithTag here knowing that
                   *     it returns us the first entry in the table
                   *     for the tag and that that entry is for the
                   *     widest potential data type the tag may have.
                   */
                  { TIFFDataType type = fip->field_type;
                    if (type != TIFF_LONG && type != TIFF_SLONG) {
                        uint16 v = (uint16)
                     TIFFExtractData(tif, dp->tdir_type, dp->tdir_offset);
                        ok = (fip->field_passcount ?
                            TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, 1, &v)
                          : TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, v));
                        break;
                    }
                  }
                  /* fall thru... */
            case TIFF_LONG:
            case TIFF_SLONG:
                  { uint32 v32 =
                TIFFExtractData(tif, dp->tdir_type, dp->tdir_offset);
                    ok = (fip->field_passcount ? 
                        TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, 1, &v32)
                      : TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, v32));
                  }
                  break;
            case TIFF_RATIONAL:
            case TIFF_SRATIONAL:
            case TIFF_FLOAT:
                  { float v = (dp->tdir_type == TIFF_FLOAT ? 
                        TIFFFetchFloat(tif, dp)
                      : TIFFFetchRational(tif, dp));
                    ok = (fip->field_passcount ?
                        TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, 1, &v)
                      : TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, v));
                  }
                  break;
            case TIFF_DOUBLE:
                  { double v;
                    ok = (TIFFFetchDoubleArray(tif, dp, &v) &&
                      (fip->field_passcount ?
                        TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, 1, &v)
                      : TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, v))
                    );
                  }
                  break;
            case TIFF_ASCII:
            case TIFF_UNDEFINED:          /* bit of a cheat... */
                  { char c[2];
                    if( (ok = (TIFFFetchString(tif, dp, c) != 0)) != 0 ) {
                        c[1] = '\0';            /* XXX paranoid */
                        ok = (fip->field_passcount ?
                              TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, 1, c)
                              : TIFFSetField(tif, dp->tdir_tag, c));
                    }
                  }
                  break;
            }
      }
      return (ok);
}

#define     NITEMS(x)   (sizeof (x) / sizeof (x[0]))
/*
 * Fetch samples/pixel short values for 
 * the specified tag and verify that
 * all values are the same.
 */
static int
TIFFFetchPerSampleShorts(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, uint16* pl)
{
    uint16 samples = tif->tif_dir.td_samplesperpixel;
    int status = 0;

    if (CheckDirCount(tif, dir, (uint32) samples)) {
        uint16 buf[10];
        uint16* v = buf;

        if (dir->tdir_count > NITEMS(buf))
            v = (uint16*) _TIFFCheckMalloc(tif, dir->tdir_count, sizeof(uint16),
                                      "to fetch per-sample values");
        if (v && TIFFFetchShortArray(tif, dir, v)) {
            uint16 i;
            int check_count = dir->tdir_count;
            if( samples < check_count )
                check_count = samples;

            for (i = 1; i < check_count; i++)
                if (v[i] != v[0]) {
                              TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, tif->tif_name,
                              "Cannot handle different per-sample values for field \"%s\"",
                              _TIFFFieldWithTag(tif, dir->tdir_tag)->field_name);
                    goto bad;
                }
            *pl = v[0];
            status = 1;
        }
      bad:
        if (v && v != buf)
            _TIFFfree(v);
    }
    return (status);
}

/*
 * Fetch samples/pixel long values for 
 * the specified tag and verify that
 * all values are the same.
 */
static int
TIFFFetchPerSampleLongs(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, uint32* pl)
{
    uint16 samples = tif->tif_dir.td_samplesperpixel;
    int status = 0;

    if (CheckDirCount(tif, dir, (uint32) samples)) {
        uint32 buf[10];
        uint32* v = buf;

        if (dir->tdir_count > NITEMS(buf))
            v = (uint32*) _TIFFCheckMalloc(tif, dir->tdir_count, sizeof(uint32),
                                      "to fetch per-sample values");
        if (v && TIFFFetchLongArray(tif, dir, v)) {
            uint16 i;
            int check_count = dir->tdir_count;

            if( samples < check_count )
                check_count = samples;
            for (i = 1; i < check_count; i++)
                if (v[i] != v[0]) {
                              TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, tif->tif_name,
                              "Cannot handle different per-sample values for field \"%s\"",
                              _TIFFFieldWithTag(tif, dir->tdir_tag)->field_name);
                    goto bad;
                }
            *pl = v[0];
            status = 1;
        }
      bad:
        if (v && v != buf)
            _TIFFfree(v);
    }
    return (status);
}

/*
 * Fetch samples/pixel ANY values for the specified tag and verify that all
 * values are the same.
 */
static int
TIFFFetchPerSampleAnys(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, double* pl)
{
    uint16 samples = tif->tif_dir.td_samplesperpixel;
    int status = 0;

    if (CheckDirCount(tif, dir, (uint32) samples)) {
        double buf[10];
        double* v = buf;

        if (dir->tdir_count > NITEMS(buf))
            v = (double*) _TIFFCheckMalloc(tif, dir->tdir_count, sizeof (double),
                                      "to fetch per-sample values");
        if (v && TIFFFetchAnyArray(tif, dir, v)) {
            uint16 i;
            int check_count = dir->tdir_count;
            if( samples < check_count )
                check_count = samples;

            for (i = 1; i < check_count; i++)
                if (v[i] != v[0]) {
                    TIFFErrorExt(tif->tif_clientdata, tif->tif_name,
                              "Cannot handle different per-sample values for field \"%s\"",
                              _TIFFFieldWithTag(tif, dir->tdir_tag)->field_name);
                    goto bad;
                }
            *pl = v[0];
            status = 1;
        }
      bad:
        if (v && v != buf)
            _TIFFfree(v);
    }
    return (status);
}
#undef NITEMS

/*
 * Fetch a set of offsets or lengths.
 * While this routine says "strips", in fact it's also used for tiles.
 */
static int
TIFFFetchStripThing(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir, long nstrips, uint32** lpp)
{
      register uint32* lp;
      int status;

        CheckDirCount(tif, dir, (uint32) nstrips);

      /*
       * Allocate space for strip information.
       */
      if (*lpp == NULL &&
          (*lpp = (uint32 *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif,
            nstrips, sizeof (uint32), "for strip array")) == NULL)
            return (0);
      lp = *lpp;
        _TIFFmemset( lp, 0, sizeof(uint32) * nstrips );

      if (dir->tdir_type == (int)TIFF_SHORT) {
            /*
             * Handle uint16->uint32 expansion.
             */
            uint16* dp = (uint16*) _TIFFCheckMalloc(tif,
                dir->tdir_count, sizeof (uint16), "to fetch strip tag");
            if (dp == NULL)
                  return (0);
            if( (status = TIFFFetchShortArray(tif, dir, dp)) != 0 ) {
                    int i;
                    
                    for( i = 0; i < nstrips && i < (int) dir->tdir_count; i++ )
                    {
                        lp[i] = dp[i];
                    }
            }
            _TIFFfree((char*) dp);

        } else if( nstrips != (int) dir->tdir_count ) {
            /* Special case to correct length */

            uint32* dp = (uint32*) _TIFFCheckMalloc(tif,
                dir->tdir_count, sizeof (uint32), "to fetch strip tag");
            if (dp == NULL)
                return (0);

            status = TIFFFetchLongArray(tif, dir, dp);
            if( status != 0 ) {
                int i;

                for( i = 0; i < nstrips && i < (int) dir->tdir_count; i++ )
                {
                    lp[i] = dp[i];
                }
            }

            _TIFFfree( (char *) dp );
      } else
            status = TIFFFetchLongArray(tif, dir, lp);
        
      return (status);
}

/*
 * Fetch and set the RefBlackWhite tag.
 */
static int
TIFFFetchRefBlackWhite(TIFF* tif, TIFFDirEntry* dir)
{
      static const char mesg[] = "for \"ReferenceBlackWhite\" array";
      char* cp;
      int ok;

      if (dir->tdir_type == TIFF_RATIONAL)
            return (TIFFFetchNormalTag(tif, dir));
      /*
       * Handle LONG's for backward compatibility.
       */
      cp = (char *)_TIFFCheckMalloc(tif, dir->tdir_count,
                              sizeof (uint32), mesg);
      if( (ok = (cp && TIFFFetchLongArray(tif, dir, (uint32*) cp))) != 0) {
            float* fp = (float*)
                _TIFFCheckMalloc(tif, dir->tdir_count, sizeof (float), mesg);
            if( (ok = (fp != NULL)) != 0 ) {
                  uint32 i;
                  for (i = 0; i < dir->tdir_count; i++)
                        fp[i] = (float)((uint32*) cp)[i];
                  ok = TIFFSetField(tif, dir->tdir_tag, fp);
                  _TIFFfree((char*) fp);
            }
      }
      if (cp)
            _TIFFfree(cp);
      return (ok);
}

/*
 * Replace a single strip (tile) of uncompressed data by
 * multiple strips (tiles), each approximately 8Kbytes.
 * This is useful for dealing with large images or
 * for dealing with machines with a limited amount
 * memory.
 */
static void
ChopUpSingleUncompressedStrip(TIFF* tif)
{
      register TIFFDirectory *td = &tif->tif_dir;
      uint32 bytecount = td->td_stripbytecount[0];
      uint32 offset = td->td_stripoffset[0];
      tsize_t rowbytes = TIFFVTileSize(tif, 1), stripbytes;
      tstrip_t strip, nstrips, rowsperstrip;
      uint32* newcounts;
      uint32* newoffsets;

      /*
       * Make the rows hold at least one scanline, but fill specified amount
       * of data if possible.
       */
      if (rowbytes > STRIP_SIZE_DEFAULT) {
            stripbytes = rowbytes;
            rowsperstrip = 1;
      } else if (rowbytes > 0 ) {
            rowsperstrip = STRIP_SIZE_DEFAULT / rowbytes;
            stripbytes = rowbytes * rowsperstrip;
      }
        else
            return;

      /* 
       * never increase the number of strips in an image
       */
      if (rowsperstrip >= td->td_rowsperstrip)
            return;
      nstrips = (tstrip_t) TIFFhowmany(bytecount, stripbytes);
        if( nstrips == 0 ) /* something is wonky, do nothing. */
            return;

      newcounts = (uint32*) _TIFFCheckMalloc(tif, nstrips, sizeof (uint32),
                        "for chopped \"StripByteCounts\" array");
      newoffsets = (uint32*) _TIFFCheckMalloc(tif, nstrips, sizeof (uint32),
                        "for chopped \"StripOffsets\" array");
      if (newcounts == NULL || newoffsets == NULL) {
              /*
             * Unable to allocate new strip information, give
             * up and use the original one strip information.
             */
            if (newcounts != NULL)
                  _TIFFfree(newcounts);
            if (newoffsets != NULL)
                  _TIFFfree(newoffsets);
            return;
      }
      /*
       * Fill the strip information arrays with new bytecounts and offsets
       * that reflect the broken-up format.
       */
      for (strip = 0; strip < nstrips; strip++) {
            if (stripbytes > (tsize_t) bytecount)
                  stripbytes = bytecount;
            newcounts[strip] = stripbytes;
            newoffsets[strip] = offset;
            offset += stripbytes;
            bytecount -= stripbytes;
      }
      /*
       * Replace old single strip info with multi-strip info.
       */
      td->td_stripsperimage = td->td_nstrips = nstrips;
      TIFFSetField(tif, TIFFTAG_ROWSPERSTRIP, rowsperstrip);

      _TIFFfree(td->td_stripbytecount);
      _TIFFfree(td->td_stripoffset);
      td->td_stripbytecount = newcounts;
      td->td_stripoffset = newoffsets;
      td->td_stripbytecountsorted = 1;
}

/* vim: set ts=8 sts=8 sw=8 noet: */

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