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qsqldriver.cpp

/****************************************************************************
**
** Copyright (C) 1992-2007 Trolltech ASA. All rights reserved.
**
** This file is part of the QtSql module of the Qt Toolkit.
**
** This file may be used under the terms of the GNU General Public
** License version 2.0 as published by the Free Software Foundation
** and appearing in the file LICENSE.GPL included in the packaging of
** this file.  Please review the following information to ensure GNU
** General Public Licensing requirements will be met:
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** If you are unsure which license is appropriate for your use, please
** review the following information:
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** This file is provided AS IS with NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, INCLUDING THE
** WARRANTY OF DESIGN, MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
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****************************************************************************/

#include "qsqldriver.h"

#include "qdatetime.h"
#include "qsqlerror.h"
#include "qsqlfield.h"
#include "qsqlindex.h"
#include "qstringlist.h"
#include "private/qobject_p.h"

class QSqlDriverPrivate : public QObjectPrivate
{
public:
    QSqlDriverPrivate();
    virtual ~QSqlDriverPrivate();

public:
    // @CHECK: this member is never used. It was named q, which expanded to q_func().
    QSqlDriver *q_func();
    uint isOpen : 1;
    uint isOpenError : 1;
    QSqlError error;
};

inline QSqlDriverPrivate::QSqlDriverPrivate()
    : QObjectPrivate(), isOpen(false), isOpenError(false)
{
}

QSqlDriverPrivate::~QSqlDriverPrivate()
{
}

/*!
    \class QSqlDriver
    \brief The QSqlDriver class is an abstract base class for accessing
    specific SQL databases.

    \ingroup database
    \module sql

    This class should not be used directly. Use QSqlDatabase instead.

    If you want to create your own SQL drivers, you can subclass this
    class and reimplement its pure virtual functions and those
    virtual functions that you need. See \l{How to Write Your Own
    Database Driver} for more information.

    \sa QSqlDatabase, QSqlResult
*/

/*!
    Constructs a new driver with the given \a parent.
*/

00078 QSqlDriver::QSqlDriver(QObject *parent)
    : QObject(*new QSqlDriverPrivate, parent)
{
}

/*!
    Destroys the object and frees any allocated resources.
*/

00087 QSqlDriver::~QSqlDriver()
{
}

/*!
    \fn bool QSqlDriver::open(const QString &db, const QString &user, const QString& password,
                              const QString &host, int port, const QString &options)

    Derived classes must reimplement this pure virtual function to
    open a database connection on database \a db, using user name \a
    user, password \a password, host \a host, port \a port and
    connection options \a options.

    The function must return true on success and false on failure.

    \sa setOpen()
*/

/*!
    \fn bool QSqlDriver::close()

    Derived classes must reimplement this pure virtual function in
    order to close the database connection. Return true on success,
    false on failure.

    \sa open(), setOpen()
*/

/*!
    \fn QSqlResult *QSqlDriver::createResult() const

    Creates an empty SQL result on the database. Derived classes must
    reimplement this function and return a QSqlResult object
    appropriate for their database to the caller.
*/

/*!
    Returns true if the database connection is open; otherwise returns
    false.
*/

00128 bool QSqlDriver::isOpen() const
{
    return d_func()->isOpen;
}

/*!
    Returns true if the there was an error opening the database
    connection; otherwise returns false.
*/

00138 bool QSqlDriver::isOpenError() const
{
    return d_func()->isOpenError;
}

/*!
    \enum QSqlDriver::DriverFeature

    This enum contains a list of features a driver might support. Use
    hasFeature() to query whether a feature is supported or not.

    \value Transactions  Whether the driver supports SQL transactions.
    \value QuerySize  Whether the database is capable of reporting the size
    of a query. Note that some databases do not support returning the size
    (i.e. number of rows returned) of a query, in which case
    QSqlQuery::size() will return -1.
    \value BLOB  Whether the driver supports Binary Large Object fields.
    \value Unicode  Whether the driver supports Unicode strings if the
    database server does.
    \value PreparedQueries  Whether the driver supports prepared query execution.
    \value NamedPlaceholders  Whether the driver supports the use of named placeholders.
    \value PositionalPlaceholders  Whether the driver supports the use of positional placeholders.
    \value LastInsertId  Whether the driver supports returning the Id of the last touched row.
    \value BatchOperations  Whether the driver supports batched operations, see QSqlResult::execBatch()

    More information about supported features can be found in the
    \l{sql-driver.html}{Qt SQL driver} documentation.

    \sa hasFeature()
*/

/*!
    \enum QSqlDriver::StatementType

    This enum contains a list of SQL statement (or clause) types the
    driver can create.

    \value WhereStatement  An SQL \c WHERE statement (e.g., \c{WHERE f = 5}).
    \value SelectStatement An SQL \c SELECT statement (e.g., \c{SELECT f FROM t}).
    \value UpdateStatement An SQL \c UPDATE statement (e.g., \c{UPDATE TABLE t set f = 1}).
    \value InsertStatement An SQL \c INSERT statement (e.g., \c{INSERT INTO t (f) values (1)}).
    \value DeleteStatement An SQL \c DELETE statement (e.g., \c{DELETE FROM t}).

    \sa sqlStatement()
*/

/*!
    \enum QSqlDriver::IdentifierType

    This enum contains a list of SQL identifier types.

    \value FieldName A SQL field name
    \value TableName A SQL table name
*/

/*!
    \fn bool QSqlDriver::hasFeature(DriverFeature feature) const

    Returns true if the driver supports feature \a feature; otherwise
    returns false.

    Note that some databases need to be open() before this can be
    determined.

    \sa DriverFeature
*/

/*!
    This function sets the open state of the database to \a open.
    Derived classes can use this function to report the status of
    open().

    \sa open(), setOpenError()
*/

00213 void QSqlDriver::setOpen(bool open)
{
    d_func()->isOpen = open;
}

/*!
    This function sets the open error state of the database to \a
    error. Derived classes can use this function to report the status
    of open(). Note that if \a error is true the open state of the
    database is set to closed (i.e., isOpen() returns false).

    \sa open(), setOpen()
*/

00227 void QSqlDriver::setOpenError(bool error)
{
    d_func()->isOpenError = error;
    if (error)
        d_func()->isOpen = false;
}

/*!
    This function is called to begin a transaction. If successful,
    return true, otherwise return false. The default implementation
    does nothing and returns false.

    \sa commitTransaction(), rollbackTransaction()
*/

00242 bool QSqlDriver::beginTransaction()
{
    return false;
}

/*!
    This function is called to commit a transaction. If successful,
    return true, otherwise return false. The default implementation
    does nothing and returns false.

    \sa beginTransaction(), rollbackTransaction()
*/

00255 bool QSqlDriver::commitTransaction()
{
    return false;
}

/*!
    This function is called to rollback a transaction. If successful,
    return true, otherwise return false. The default implementation
    does nothing and returns false.

    \sa beginTransaction(), commitTransaction()
*/

00268 bool QSqlDriver::rollbackTransaction()
{
    return false;
}

/*!
    This function is used to set the value of the last error, \a error,
    that occurred on the database.

    \sa lastError()
*/

00280 void QSqlDriver::setLastError(const QSqlError &error)
{
    d_func()->error = error;
}

/*!
    Returns a QSqlError object which contains information about the
    last error that occurred on the database.
*/

00290 QSqlError QSqlDriver::lastError() const
{
    return d_func()->error;
}

/*!
    Returns a list of the names of the tables in the database. The
    default implementation returns an empty list.

    The \a tableType argument describes what types of tables
    should be returned. Due to binary compatibility, the string
    contains the value of the enum QSql::TableTypes as text.
    An empty string should be treated as QSql::Tables for
    backward compatibility.
*/

00306 QStringList QSqlDriver::tables(QSql::TableType) const
{
    return QStringList();
}

/*!
    Returns the primary index for table \a tableName. Returns an empty
    QSqlIndex if the table doesn't have a primary index. The default
    implementation returns an empty index.
*/

00317 QSqlIndex QSqlDriver::primaryIndex(const QString&) const
{
    return QSqlIndex();
}


/*!
    Returns a QSqlRecord populated with the names of the fields in
    table \a tableName. If no such table exists, an empty record is
    returned. The default implementation returns an empty record.
*/

00329 QSqlRecord QSqlDriver::record(const QString & /* tableName */) const
{
    return QSqlRecord();
}

/*!
    Returns the \a identifier escaped according to the database rules.
    \a identifier can either be a table name or field name, dependent
    on \a type.

    The default implementation does nothing.
 */
00341 QString QSqlDriver::escapeIdentifier(const QString &identifier, IdentifierType) const
{
    return identifier;
}

/*!
    Returns a SQL statement of type \a type for the table \a tableName
    with the values from \a rec. If \a preparedStatement is true, the
    string will contain placeholders instead of values.

    This method can be used to manipulate tables without having to worry
    about database-dependent SQL dialects. For non-prepared statements,
    the values will be properly escaped.
*/
00355 QString QSqlDriver::sqlStatement(StatementType type, const QString &tableName,
                                 const QSqlRecord &rec, bool preparedStatement) const
{
    int i;
    QString s;
    s.reserve(128);
    switch (type) {
    case SelectStatement:
        for (i = 0; i < rec.count(); ++i) {
            if (rec.isGenerated(i))
                s.append(escapeIdentifier(rec.fieldName(i), FieldName)).append(QLatin1String(", "));
        }
        if (s.isEmpty())
            return s;
        s.chop(2);
        s.prepend(QLatin1String("SELECT ")).append(QLatin1String(" FROM ")).append(
                escapeIdentifier(tableName, TableName));
        break;
    case WhereStatement:
        if (preparedStatement) {
            for (int i = 0; i < rec.count(); ++i)
                s.append(escapeIdentifier(rec.fieldName(i), FieldName)).append(
                         QLatin1String(" = ? AND "));
        } else {
            for (i = 0; i < rec.count(); ++i) {
                s.append(escapeIdentifier(rec.fieldName(i), FieldName));
                QString val = formatValue(rec.field(i));
                if (val == QLatin1String("NULL"))
                    s.append(QLatin1String(" IS NULL"));
                else
                    s.append(QLatin1String(" = ")).append(val);
                s.append(QLatin1String(" AND "));
            }
        }
        if (!s.isEmpty()) {
            s.prepend(QLatin1String("WHERE "));
            s.chop(5); // remove tailing AND
        }
        break;
    case UpdateStatement:
        s.append(QLatin1String("UPDATE ")).append(escapeIdentifier(tableName, TableName)).append(
                 QLatin1String(" SET "));
        for (i = 0; i < rec.count(); ++i) {
            if (!rec.isGenerated(i) || !rec.value(i).isValid())
                continue;
            s.append(escapeIdentifier(rec.fieldName(i), FieldName)).append(QLatin1Char('='));
            if (preparedStatement)
                s.append(QLatin1Char('?'));
            else
                s.append(formatValue(rec.field(i)));
            s.append(QLatin1String(", "));
        }
        if (s.endsWith(QLatin1String(", ")))
            s.chop(2);
        else
            s = QString();
        break;
    case DeleteStatement:
        s.append(QLatin1String("DELETE FROM ")).append(escapeIdentifier(tableName, TableName));
        break;
    case InsertStatement: {
        s.append(QLatin1String("INSERT INTO ")).append(escapeIdentifier(
                    tableName, TableName)).append(QLatin1String(" ("));
        QString vals;
        for (i = 0; i < rec.count(); ++i) {
            if (!rec.isGenerated(i) || !rec.value(i).isValid())
                continue;
            s.append(escapeIdentifier(rec.fieldName(i), FieldName)).append(QLatin1String(", "));
            if (preparedStatement)
                vals.append(QLatin1String("?"));
            else
                vals.append(formatValue(rec.field(i)));
            vals.append(QLatin1String(", "));
        }
        if (vals.isEmpty()) {
            s = QString();
        } else {
            vals.chop(2); // remove trailing comma
            s[s.length() - 2] = QLatin1Char(')');
            s.append(QLatin1String("VALUES (")).append(vals).append(QLatin1String(")"));
        }
        break; }
    }
    return s;
}

/*!
    Returns a string representation of the \a field value for the
    database. This is used, for example, when constructing INSERT and
    UPDATE statements.

    The default implementation returns the value formatted as a string
    according to the following rules:

    \list

    \i If \a field is character data, the value is returned enclosed
    in single quotation marks, which is appropriate for many SQL
    databases. Any embedded single-quote characters are escaped
    (replaced with two single-quote characters). If \a trimStrings is
    true (the default is false), all trailing whitespace is trimmed
    from the field.

    \i If \a field is date/time data, the value is formatted in ISO
    format and enclosed in single quotation marks. If the date/time
    data is invalid, "NULL" is returned.

    \i If \a field is \link QByteArray bytearray\endlink data, and the
    driver can edit binary fields, the value is formatted as a
    hexadecimal string.

    \i For any other field type, toString() is called on its value
    and the result of this is returned.

    \endlist

    \sa QVariant::toString()

*/
00474 QString QSqlDriver::formatValue(const QSqlField &field, bool trimStrings) const
{
    const QLatin1String nullTxt("NULL");

    QString r;
    if (field.isNull())
        r = nullTxt;
    else {
        switch (field.type()) {
        case QVariant::Int:
        case QVariant::UInt:
            if (field.value().type() == QVariant::Bool)
                r = field.value().toBool() ? QLatin1String("1") : QLatin1String("0");
            else
                r = field.value().toString();
            break;
#ifndef QT_NO_DATESTRING
      case QVariant::Date:
            if (field.value().toDate().isValid())
                r = QLatin1Char('\'') + field.value().toDate().toString(Qt::ISODate)
                    + QLatin1Char('\'');
            else
                r = nullTxt;
            break;
        case QVariant::Time:
            if (field.value().toTime().isValid())
                r =  QLatin1Char('\'') + field.value().toTime().toString(Qt::ISODate)
                     + QLatin1Char('\'');
            else
                r = nullTxt;
            break;
        case QVariant::DateTime:
            if (field.value().toDateTime().isValid())
                r = QLatin1Char('\'') +
                    field.value().toDateTime().toString(Qt::ISODate) + QLatin1Char('\'');
            else
                r = nullTxt;
            break;
#endif
        case QVariant::String:
        case QVariant::Char:
        {
            QString result = field.value().toString();
            if (trimStrings) {
                int end = result.length();
                while (end && result.at(end-1).isSpace()) /* skip white space from end */
                    end--;
                result.truncate(end);
            }
            /* escape the "'" character */
            result.replace(QLatin1Char('\''), QLatin1String("''"));
            r = QLatin1Char('\'') + result + QLatin1Char('\'');
            break;
        }
        case QVariant::Bool:
            if (field.value().toBool())
                r = QLatin1String("1");
            else
                r = QLatin1String("0");
            break;
        case QVariant::ByteArray : {
            if (hasFeature(BLOB)) {
                QByteArray ba = field.value().toByteArray();
                QString res;
                static const char hexchars[] = "0123456789abcdef";
                for (int i = 0; i < ba.size(); ++i) {
                    uchar s = (uchar) ba[i];
                    res += QLatin1Char(hexchars[s >> 4]);
                    res += QLatin1Char(hexchars[s & 0x0f]);
                }
                r = QLatin1Char('\'') + res +  QLatin1Char('\'');
                break;
            }
        }
        default:
            r = field.value().toString();
            break;
        }
    }
    return r;
}

/*!
    Returns the low-level database handle wrapped in a QVariant or an
    invalid variant if there is no handle.

    \warning Use this with uttermost care and only if you know what you're doing.

    \warning The handle returned here can become a stale pointer if the connection
    is modified (for example, if you close the connection).

    \warning The handle can be NULL if the connection is not open yet.

    The handle returned here is database-dependent, you should query the type
    name of the variant before accessing it.

    This example retrieves the handle for a connection to sqlite:

    \code
    QSqlDatabase db = ...;
    QVariant v = db.driver()->handle();
    if (v.isValid() && v.typeName() == "sqlite3*") {
        // v.data() returns a pointer to the handle
        sqlite3 *handle = *static_cast<sqlite3 **>(v.data());
        if (handle != 0) { // check that it is not NULL
            ...
        }
    }
    \endcode

    This snippet returns the handle for PostgreSQL or MySQL:

    \code
    if (v.typeName() == "PGconn*") {
        PGconn *handle = *static_cast<PGconn **>(v.data());
        if (handle != 0) ...
    }

    if (v.typeName() == "MYSQL*") {
        MYSQL *handle = *static_cast<MYSQL **>(v.data());
        if (handle != 0) ...
    }
    \endcode

    \sa QSqlResult::handle()
*/
00600 QVariant QSqlDriver::handle() const
{
    return QVariant();
}

/*!
    \fn QSqlRecord QSqlDriver::record(const QSqlQuery& query) const

    Use query.record() instead.
*/

/*!
    \fn QSqlRecord QSqlDriver::recordInfo(const QString& tablename) const

    Use record() instead.
*/

/*!
    \fn QSqlRecord QSqlDriver::recordInfo(const QSqlQuery& query) const

    Use query.record() instead.
*/

/*!
    \fn QString QSqlDriver::nullText() const

    sqlStatement() is now used to generate SQL. Use tr("NULL") for example, instead.
*/

/*!
    \fn QString QSqlDriver::formatValue(const QSqlField *field, bool trimStrings) const

    Use the other formatValue() overload instead.
*/


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